With respect to ethnic composition of the former state union of Serbia-Montenegro, now separate republics of Serbia and Montenegro, the structure of the population is highly heterogeneous.
The prevalent national minorities are Albanians, Hungarians and Bosniaks. According to the 1991 census (Serbia carried out a new census in 2002, and Montenegro in 2003), 33.7% of the population on the territory of former Serbia-Montenegro belongs to minority communities, of which four-fifths are Albanians, Hungarians and Bosniaks.
According to the 2002 census, there are 1,135,393 members of national minorities in Serbia, excluding Kosovo-Metohija.
The largest number of national minorities live in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, namely Hungarians (290,207), Croats (56,645) Slovaks (56,637), Romanians (30,419), Roma (29,057) Bunjevci (19,766), Ruthenes (15,626), Macedonians (11,785), Ukrainians (4, 635), Germans (3,154), Czechs (1, 648), and others. There are 59,952 members of Albanian national minority living in Serbia Proper, as well as 135,670 Bosniaks, 18,839 Bulgarians, 39,953 Vlachs, 3,975 Gorani, 14,062 Macedonians, 15,869 Muslims, 79,136 Roma, 14,569 Croats and others.
The largest number of ethnic Albanians live in the southern Serbian province of Kosovo-Metohija. However, it is difficult to establish their exact number in the province due to a number of reasons, including the fact that the ethnic Albanian minority last took part in the 1981 census, boycotting the one carried out in 1991.
Also, armed conflicts, the migration of a high number of Serbs and members of other minorities in the province, as well as the arrival of tens of thousands of Albanians from Albania have largely altered Kosovo-Metohija’s ethnic composition.